Others are critical of moral realism because it postulates the existence of a kind of "moral fact" which is nonmaterial and does not appear to be accessible to empirical investigation.  Moral truths cannot be observed in the same way as material facts (which are objective), so it seems odd to count them in the same category.  However, such an argument may be applicable as well to our concepts of epistemic justification as well, possibly leading to radical skepticism, an undesirable result for the moral anti-realist as it would undercut their argument as well.  This criticism is also not applicable to ethical naturalism , a form of moral realism, which suggests the possibility of a science of morality by considering morality claims to be referring to observable entities (such as wellbeing).
is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. His main interests are in seventeenth and eighteenth century philosophy, especially Kant and the rationalists. He also regularly co-teaches an undergraduate course on the “The Ethics of Eating” which was recently converted into a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on the EdX platform. The first edition of the course enrolled almost 14,000 students from over 130 countries ( https:///course/ethics-eating-cornellx-phil1440x ). He is co-editor (with Matthew Halteman and Terence Cuneo) of Philosophy Comes to Dinner: Arguments About the Ethics of Eating (Routledge, 2015) ( /Philosophy-Comes-Dinner-Arguments-Ethics/dp/0415806836/ ) and is a contributor to the Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics .
Most importantly, however, Hart argues Austin overlooks the existence of secondary meta-rules that have as their subject matter the primary rules themselves and distinguish full-blown legal systems from primitive systems of law:
The question of who to protect has implications for how to think about the important distinction between “refugee” and “migrant.” At the outset of the crisis in Europe, most commentators described it as a “migrant crisis.” This in turn led to a backlash as others suggested that it was actually a “refugee crisis.” Some media outlets such as Al Jazeera even announced that they would stop using the word “migrant.” The implicit argument was that because refugees had a particular moral claim, we should more appropriately describe the group as “refugees.” Indeed, while the majority crossing were from refugee-producing countries such as Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea, it was not clear that all of them would fit the definition of refugee under the 1951 Convention. In response, a number of commentators such as Jørgen Carling have argued that abandoning the word “migrant” would also entail risks, including the stigmatizing of other migrants. In fact, as he has pointed out, it is important that we recognize that all migrants have human rights. 22
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